Holocaust Background Information Holocaust Chronology
Pages 2 to 6
President Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Reich Chancellor.
Reichstag burns; Decree issued overriding all guarantees of freedom.
Dachau concentration camp established.
Nazi proclaim a general boycott of all Jewish owned businesses.
Laws for Reestablishment of Civil Service barred Jews from holding civil service, university and state positions as well as denied admission to the bar
Public burning of books written by Jews, political dissidents, communists and other opponents of Nazism
Law stripping East European Jewish immigrants of German citizenship.
First Nuremburg Nazi Party rally
Germany resigns form the League of Nations and the Geneva Disarmament Conference.
Hitler declares the legal unity of the German state and Nazi party
Germany signs a nonaggression pact with Poland.
Night of the Long Knives. Death of Ernst Rohm.
Death of Hindenburg. Hitler becomes Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
Saarland returned to Germany
Hitler institutes military conscription in defiance of the Versailles Treaty.
Anglo-German Naval Treaty signed.
Juden Verbuten (No Jews) signs increase in numbers outside towns, villages, restaurants and stores.
Bremen incident; Nazi flag to become the German national flag.
Reichstag passes anti-Semitic “Nuremburg Laws.” Jews no longer considered German citizens; could not marry Aryans or fly the German flag.
Germany defines a “Jew” as anyone with three Jewish grandparents or someone with two Jewish grandparents who identifies as a Jew.
Jewish doctors barred from practicing medicine in German institutions.
Germany remilitarizes and occupies the Rhineland.
Himmler appointed the Chief of German Police.
Hitler and Mussolini form Rome-Berlin Axis.
Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comentern Pact.
Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens.
Anschluss or union with Austria. A priority of Hitler to have Austria join with Germany Austrian government was bullied in to this union, though some Austrians wanted it.
Mandatory registration of all property held by Jews inside the Reich.
International conference at Evian, France fails to provide refuge for German Jews.
Adolph Eichmann establishes the Office of Jewish Emigration in Vienna to increase the pace of forced emigration.
Munich Conference: Great Britain and France agree to German occupation of the Sudetenland section of Czechoslovakia.
Germans mark all Jewish passports with a large letter “J.”
Herschel Grynszpan, whose parents were deported from Germany to Poland, assassinates Ernest von Roth, Third Secretary of the GermanEmbassy in Paria
Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass), anti-Semitic riots in Germany, Austria, and Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed and 7,500 Jewish shops looted.
26,000 Jews are arrested and sent to concentration camps November 15 Jewish students are expelled from German schools.
One billion mark fine levied against German Jews for the destruction of property during Kristallnacht.
Decree on “Aryanization” is enacted. Compulsory expropriation of Jewish industries, businesses, and shops.
Hitler in Reichstag speech, “If war erupts it will mean the Vernichtung (extermination) of European Jews.”
Germany occupies the remainder of Czechoslovakia.
Adolph Eichmann is placed in charge of the Prague branch of the Jewish
Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact signed: nonaggression treaty between Germany and Soviet Union.
Germany invades Poland.
Great Britain and France declare war on Germany
Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland.
Heydrich issues directives to establish ghettos in German-occupied Poland.
First deportation of Jews from Austria and Moravia to Poland.
First Polish ghetto established.
Wearing of Judenstern (yellow six pointed Star of David) is made compulsory throughout occupied Poland.
Germany invades Denmark and Norway
Lodz Ghetto sealed: 165,000 people in 1.6 square miles.
Germany invades Holland, Belgium, and France.
Auschwitz concentration camp established.
British army evacuates its forces from Dunkirk, France.
France surrenders to Germany
Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis is established.
Warsaw Ghetto sealed: contains 500,000 people.
Anti-Jewish riots in Romania
Adolph Eichmann appointed head of the department for Jewish affairs of the Reich Main Security Office, Section II B4.
Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.
Germany invades the Soviet Union.
Wearing the Jewish star in the German occupied Baltic States is required.
Heydrich is appointed by Goring to carry out the “Final Solution” (extermination of all Jews in Europe).
Wearing of the Jewish star is decreed throughout the Greater Reich.
First experiments with gassing are made at Auschwitz.
35,000 Jews are massacred at Babi Yar outside Kiev.
Establishment of Auschwitz II (Berkenau) for extermination of Jews, Gypsies, and Slavic people.
Thereseinstadt Ghetto in Czechoslovakia is established.
Deportation of German Jews begins.
Massacre in Odessa: 34,000 killed.
Massacre in Kiev: 34,000 killed.
Massacre in Rovno: 15,000 killed.
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor
U.S. declares war on Japan. Chelmo extermination camp on the Ner River in Poland is opened. Massacre in Riga: 27,000 killed.
Germany declares war on U.S.
Massacre in Vilna: 32,000 killed.
Wannsee Conference on Nazi “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Heydrich outlines plan to murder Europe’s Jews.
Unified resistance organization established in Vilna.
Extermination program begins in Belzec; by the end of 1,942, 600,000 Jews will have been murdered.
Treblinka Extermination camp opens. Wearing of Jewish star is decreed in Nazi occupied France and Holland.
300,000 Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto are deported to Treblinka.
Jewish resistance organization is established in the Warsaw Ghetto.
Allied nations pledge to punish Germany for the policy of genocide.
Jews in Warsaw Ghetto launch uprising against Nazi deportations. Fighting lasts four days.
German Sixth Army surrenders at Stalingrad. This marks the war’s turning point.
Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins as Germans attempt to liquidate 70,000 inhabitants.
Warsaw Ghetto liquidated.
Himmler orders liquidation of all Polish ghettos.
Revolt at Treblinka death camp.
Revolt in Bialystok Ghetto.
Vilna Ghetto liquidated.
Armed revolt in Sobibor Extermination camp.
United Nations War Crimes Committee is established.
Germany occupies Hungary.
Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews. By June 27, 380,000 sent to Auschwitz.
Allies liberate Rome.
D-Day Normandy Invasion: Allies begin liberation of Western Europe.
Group of German officers attempt to assassinate Hitler
Soviet troops liberate Maidanek extermination camp.
Revolt at Auschwitz; one crematorium is destroyed.
40,000 Jews forced to participate in the Budapest to Austria death march.
Himmler orders destruction of Auschwitz crematorium to hide evidence of Nazi death camps.
Soviet troops liberate Warsaw. Auschwitz evacuated; inmate death march begins.
Stutthof concentration camp evacuated; death march of inmates begins.
American troops cross Rhine River.
British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen death camp.
American and Soviet troops meet at the Elbe River.
Hitler commits suicide.
V-E Day Germany surrenders unconditionally
Bombing of Hiroshima.
Bombing of Nagasaki.
Japan surrenders unconditionally
Nuremburg War Crimes Tribunal commences.
Nuremburg Trials conclude with a judgement in which twelve defendants were sentenced to death, three to life imprisonment, four to various prison terms, and three acquitted.
TABLE of CONTENTS
- Introduction and Program Goals
- Holocaust Background Information Holocaust Chronology
- Adolf Hitler: A Study in Tyranny
- The Swastika: A Sign of Good Luck Becomes a Symbol of Evil
- Lebensraum: Living Space for the German Race
- Translation of a Property Confiscation Order
- Auschwitz: The Camp of Death
- “Oh, No, It Can’t Be”
- In The Liberated Camps
- Pursuing the Killers
- Europe’s Displaced Millions
- Vocabulary List
- Questions on Hitler
- Swastika Questions
- Auschwitz Questions
- Oh, No, It Can’t Be – Questions
- Thinking it Over
- Holocaust Videography
- Holocaust Bibliography