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Holocaust Background Information Holocaust Chronology

Pages 2 to 6

1933
January 30   
President Hindenburg appoints Adolf Hitler as Reich Chancellor.

February 27   
Reichstag burns; Decree issued overriding all guarantees of freedom.

March 22  
Dachau concentration camp established.

April 1  
Nazi proclaim a general boycott of all Jewish owned businesses.

April 7   
Laws for Reestablishment of Civil Service barred Jews from holding civil service, university and state positions as well as denied admission to the bar

April 26 
Gestapo established.

May 10   
Public burning of books written by Jews, political dissidents, communists and other opponents of Nazism

July 14   
Law stripping East European Jewish immigrants of German citizenship.

September 1 
First Nuremburg Nazi Party rally

October 3   
Germany resigns form the League of Nations and the Geneva Disarmament Conference.

December 1  
Hitler declares the legal unity of the German state and Nazi party


1934
January
Germany signs a nonaggression pact with Poland.

June 27  
Night of the Long Knives. Death of Ernst Rohm.

August 2  
Death of Hindenburg. Hitler becomes Head of State and Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.

1935 
January  
Saarland returned to Germany

March 
Hitler institutes military conscription in defiance of the Versailles Treaty.

June 
Anglo-German Naval Treaty signed.

Summer  
Juden Verbuten (No Jews) signs increase in numbers outside towns, villages, restaurants and stores.

July 26
Bremen incident; Nazi flag to become the German national flag.

September 15  
Reichstag passes anti-Semitic “Nuremburg Laws.” Jews no longer considered German citizens; could not marry Aryans or fly the German flag.

November 15  
Germany defines a “Jew” as anyone with three Jewish grandparents or someone with two Jewish grandparents who identifies as a Jew.


1936
March 3  
Jewish doctors barred from practicing medicine in German institutions.

March 7 
Germany remilitarizes and occupies the Rhineland.

June 17 
Himmler appointed the Chief of German Police.

October 25 
Hitler and Mussolini form Rome-Berlin Axis.

November 25 
Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comentern Pact.


1937
July 16 
Buchenwald Concentration Camp opens.


1938 
March 13 
Anschluss or union with Austria. A priority of Hitler to have Austria join with Germany Austrian government was bullied in to this union, though some Austrians wanted it.

April 26
Mandatory registration of all property held by Jews inside the Reich.

July 6 
International conference at Evian, France fails to provide refuge for German Jews.

August
Adolph Eichmann establishes the Office of Jewish Emigration in Vienna to increase the pace of forced emigration.

September 29 
Munich Conference: Great Britain and France agree to German occupation of the Sudetenland section of Czechoslovakia.

October 15 
Germans mark all Jewish passports with a large letter “J.”

November 7 
Herschel Grynszpan, whose parents were deported from Germany to Poland, assassinates Ernest von Roth, Third Secretary of the GermanEmbassy in Paria

November 9 
Kristallnacht (Night of Broken Glass), anti-Semitic riots in Germany, Austria, and Sudetenland; 200 synagogues destroyed and 7,500 Jewish shops looted.

November 12 
26,000 Jews are arrested and sent to concentration camps November 15 Jewish students are expelled from German schools.

December 12 
One billion mark fine levied against German Jews for the destruction of property during Kristallnacht.

December 13 
Decree on “Aryanization” is enacted. Compulsory expropriation of Jewish industries, businesses, and shops.

1939 
January 30  
Hitler in Reichstag speech, “If war erupts it will mean the Vernichtung (extermination) of European Jews.”

March 15 
Germany occupies the remainder of Czechoslovakia.

July 26   
Adolph Eichmann is placed in charge of the Prague branch of the Jewish
Emigration Office.

August 23 
Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact signed: nonaggression treaty between Germany and  Soviet Union.

September 1 
Germany invades Poland.

September 3 
Great Britain and France declare war on Germany

September 17 
Soviet occupation of Eastern Poland.

September 21 
Heydrich issues directives to establish ghettos in German-occupied Poland.

October 12 
First deportation of Jews from Austria and Moravia to Poland.

October 28
First Polish ghetto established.

November 23 
Wearing of Judenstern (yellow six pointed Star of David) is made compulsory throughout occupied Poland.

1940 
April 9 
Germany invades Denmark and Norway

April 30 
Lodz Ghetto sealed: 165,000 people in 1.6 square miles.

May 10 
Germany invades Holland, Belgium, and France.

May 22 
Auschwitz concentration camp established.

June 4 
British army evacuates its forces from Dunkirk, France.

June 22 
France surrenders to Germany

September 27  
Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis is established.

November 15  
Warsaw Ghetto sealed: contains 500,000 people.

1941 
January 21-26  
Anti-Jewish riots in Romania

March 17  
Adolph Eichmann appointed head of the department for Jewish affairs of the Reich Main Security Office, Section II B4.

April 6  
Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece.

June 22   
Germany invades the Soviet Union.

July 8  
Wearing the Jewish star in the German occupied Baltic States is required.

July 31 
Heydrich is appointed by Goring to carry out the “Final Solution” (extermination  of all Jews in Europe).

September 15 
Wearing of the Jewish star is decreed throughout the Greater Reich.

September 23 
First experiments with gassing are made at Auschwitz.

September 28/29  
35,000 Jews are massacred at Babi Yar outside Kiev.

October 8 
Establishment of Auschwitz II (Berkenau) for extermination of Jews, Gypsies, and Slavic people.

October 10
Thereseinstadt Ghetto in Czechoslovakia is established.

October 14 
Deportation of German Jews begins.

October 23 
Massacre in Odessa: 34,000 killed.

October 24 
Massacre in Kiev: 34,000 killed.

November 6 
Massacre in Rovno: 15,000 killed.

December 7 
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor

December 8 
U.S. declares war on Japan. Chelmo extermination camp on the Ner River in Poland is opened. Massacre in Riga: 27,000 killed.

December 11 
Germany declares war on U.S.

December 22 
Massacre in Vilna: 32,000 killed.

1942 
January 20 
Wannsee Conference on Nazi “Final Solution of the Jewish Question.” Heydrich  outlines plan to murder Europe’s Jews.

January 21 
Unified resistance organization established in Vilna.

March 17  
Extermination program begins in Belzec; by the end of 1,942, 600,000 Jews will have been murdered.

June 1 
Treblinka Extermination camp opens. Wearing of Jewish star is decreed in Nazi occupied France and Holland.

July 22 
300,000 Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto are deported to Treblinka.

July 28  
Jewish resistance organization is established in the Warsaw Ghetto.

October 17 
Allied nations pledge to punish Germany for the policy of genocide.

1943 
January 18 
Jews in Warsaw Ghetto launch uprising against Nazi deportations. Fighting lasts four days.

February 2  
German Sixth Army surrenders at Stalingrad. This marks the war’s turning point.

April 19 
Warsaw Ghetto revolt begins as Germans attempt to liquidate 70,000 inhabitants.

May 16 
Warsaw Ghetto liquidated.

June 11 
Himmler orders liquidation of all Polish ghettos.

August 2 
Revolt at Treblinka death camp.

August 16  
Revolt in Bialystok Ghetto.

September 23  
Vilna Ghetto liquidated.

October 14 
Armed revolt in Sobibor Extermination camp.

October 20  
United Nations War Crimes Committee is established.

1944 
March 19  
Germany occupies Hungary.

May 15  
Nazis begin deporting Hungarian Jews. By June 27, 380,000 sent to Auschwitz.

June 4 
Allies liberate Rome.

June 6 
D-Day Normandy Invasion: Allies begin liberation of Western Europe.

July 20 
Group of German officers attempt to assassinate Hitler

July 24 
Soviet troops liberate Maidanek extermination camp.

October 23  
Paris liberated.

November 7 
Revolt at Auschwitz; one crematorium is destroyed.

November 8 
40,000 Jews forced to participate in the Budapest to Austria death march.

November 24 
Himmler orders destruction of Auschwitz crematorium to hide evidence of Nazi death camps.

1945 
January 17 
Soviet troops liberate Warsaw. Auschwitz evacuated; inmate death march begins.

January 25 
Stutthof concentration camp evacuated; death march of inmates begins.

February 4 
Yalta Conference

March 5 
American troops cross Rhine River.

April 15 
British troops liberate Bergen-Belsen death camp.

April 25 
American and Soviet troops meet at the Elbe River.

April 30 
Hitler commits suicide.

May 7 
V-E Day Germany surrenders unconditionally

August 6 
Bombing of Hiroshima.

August 9 
Bombing of Nagasaki.

August 15  
Japan surrenders unconditionally

September 2 
V-J Day.

November 22 
Nuremburg War Crimes Tribunal commences.

1946 
October 1  
Nuremburg Trials conclude with a judgement in which twelve defendants were sentenced to death, three to life imprisonment, four to various prison terms, and three acquitted.