Part One, Page Five
SECTION 1: (00:00-16:57)
- When Judy hears about the mob scene at the Bakers’ home, she is “devastated.” Why does the Baker incident affect Judy so strongly?
- What does Judy’s decision to take cookies to the Bakers suggest about her values and beliefs?
- After hearing about the Baker incident, Judy says, “I knew that I had to tell my story.” Why does the Baker incident prompt Judy to speak out about her experiences? What are the connections she sees between their lives and her experience as a European Jew during World War II?
- What do we learn about Judy’s family background, including her family members and their geographical location?
- What are the effects of the Russian and German invasions of Lithuania on Judy’s family life?
- Why do the Lithuanian children taunt and jeer at Judy when she and her family are being moved to the ghetto? What caused the children to change their attitude toward her?
- What are some of Judy’s experiences in the Kovno ghetto? What resistance strategies help her to survive the harsh conditions of ghetto life?
- What acts of prejudice have you encountered personally or heard about from an acquaintance? Discuss how you or the person you know felt about and responded to being the victim of discrimination.
IMPORTANT TERMS[one_half]JEWISH COUNCIL (JUDENRAT)
Groups of Jewish representatives, usually selected by the Germans, who carried out Nazi instructions in Jewish communities and ghettos in occupied Europe. Jewish Councils had no autonomy and no power but were obligated under penalty of death to fulfill Nazi demands.
A term first used by Wilhelm Marr in 1879 to indicate hatred of Jews. Such hatred was primarily based on the fact that Jews exist and are perceived to be a threat to world order. Anti-Semitism involves the systematic denial to Jews of rights and powers granted to others.
The building or place where Jews assemble for worship and religious study.
Yiddish term for a synagogue. A schul can be a small neighborhood prayer house or a large building for community worship.
The forced labor of Jewish and non-Jewish civilians in occupied Europe. Conscripts worked in factories, in ghetto workshops, in military installations, and in the concentration and death camps. Such labor was usually uncompensated and was supervised by the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Nazi Germany.
Small, often poor, Jewish town or village in Eastern Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Two racial laws created by the German legislature on September 15, 1935, at the annual Nazi party rally in Nuremberg. The first law deprived German Jews of their German citizenship; the second law, which was established to “protect German Blood and Honor, ” defined who was a Jew and who was an Aryan. The Nuremberg Laws provided the legal justification for the segregation of Jews and for subsequent anti-Semitic legislation that made possible the deportation and eventual massacre of European Jewry.
The destruction of 6 million or more Jews by the Nazis and their followers in Europe between the years 19331945. Other individuals and groups were persecuted and suffered grievously during this period, but only the Jews were marked for complete annihilation. The term “Holocaust”—literally meaning “a completely burned sacrifice”-suggests a sacrificial connotation to the event. The equivalent Hebrew word “Shoah” originated from the Biblical term meaning “widespread disaster.”
[/one_half] [one_half last] SHABES OR SHABBAT(SABBATH)
Shabes (Yiddish term) or Shabbat (Modern Israeli Hebrew term) is the day of rest for the Jewish people specified in the book of Exodus (31:16-17). Shabes begins at sunset on Friday and concludes on Saturday night after the first three stars are visible in the sky. On Shabes one turns away from weekday pressures and activities. It is a day of synagogue worship and a time to be with family.
The Jewish Police were responsible for the maintenance of public order in the ghettos. Set up by ghetto Jewish Councils operating under German orders, the Jewish police were responsible for gathering Jews for forced labor, collecting payments, and helping the Nazis deport Jews from the ghettos to the concentration camps.
A pogrom (organized attack) perpetrated by the Nazis against German, Bohemian, and Austrian Jews on November 9-10, 1938. Synagogues and other Jewish institutions were burned, Jewish businesses were looted, and Jews were assaulted and murdered. In addition, approximately 30,000 German Jewish men were sent to concentration camps. The incident is referred to as Kristallnacht, which means “Night of the Broken Glass, ” because the streets were littered with broken glass from Jewish storefronts, homes, and synagogues.
German authorities viewed Kristallnacht as just retribution for the assassination of Ernst vom Rath, a secretary in Germany’s Paris embassy. Vom Rath had been shot by a Jewish teenager whose parents had been rounded up by the Nazis.
Segregated “Jewish Quarters” in major European cities under Nazi control where all Jews were forced to reside. Enclosed by barbed wire or walls, the ghettos were often sealed so that people were prevented from leaving or entering them. Established mostly in Eastern Europe, the ghettos were characterized by overcrowding, starvation, and forced labor. In a few cases, there were uprisings against the Nazis in the ghettos, most notably in the Warsaw ghetto. All ghettos were eventually destroyed after the Jews within them were deported to death camps.[/one_half]